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finger print analysis

When humans touch any object or come in contact with it, they leave a proof behind in the form of their fingerprints – friction ridges of human fingers. Sweat and oil gets collected on these ridges and is transferred to objects, thus leaving a duplicate of the fingerprint pattern. Human fingers, toes, palms and foot soles naturally have friction ridges that help a person in gripping objects and the ground. ?These ridges are also connected to our nerves, so even if an individual has a slightest pressure against the ridge, the individual will feel it. These ridges create the fingerprint patterns and these patterns are formed in womb and remain till our death. They hardly change until and unless there is any kind of injury, mutation or external change. These ridges take general forms such as loops, accidental, whorls and arches. ?The ridges make distinctive fingerprints which are based on minute variations in their patterns. The small differences present are called finer points or minutiae. The fact that fingerprints remain the same throughout our life is the reason why it makes important in identifying individuals from their prints. Each and every pattern is unique and matchless and not even one finger have the same type of fingerprint. Although, no studies confirm that all fingerprints are exclusive, no two have ever been found to be totally matching. Each one of us has an exclusive fingerprint pattern, which is the main reason they are widely used by forensics to recognize individuals. Fingerprinting analysis has been there in use for more than a century and is widely used by law enforcement agencies.



Basic Patterns & Understanding of Fingerprints

Fingerprints are small ridges on the end of human fingers and thumb. The ridges are in a pattern of spirals and loops. ?Nature made these as such that we can grip and hold on to things. In the early 1900s, people started realizing the fact that fingerprints are unique and no two people have the same type of fingerprints. ?Fingerprint patterns are inherent but can’t be the same and even in the cases of identical twins, the patterns differ slightly. Sir Francis Galton was the first one to use this information in solving legal cases at Scotland Yard in England. ?He introduced the technique of comparing prints found at a crime scene with those of a suspect. Most of his work is based on the observations of Sir Edmund Hilary. Edmund Henry realized that fingerprints can be described as having patterns of arches, loops, accidental or whirls. These shapes were later improved to eight basic patterns, which are still used by the FBI today.



Some of the fingerprint patterns are given below:

  1. Arch

    In arches, the finger ridges run constantly from one side of the finger to the other with no re-curving. There are two groups that further define the arch pattern.

    • Plain Arch - This pattern has uniformity in it. Plain arch starts from one side of a finger, and then move upward, similar to a wave out in the ocean. The plain arch then moves in the similar way along the finger to the other side. It is the most simple of the fingerprint patterns to tell the disparity
    • Tented Arch - This pattern is similar to the plain arch and it begins on one side of the finger and continues the journey in a connected pattern to the other side. Though, the difference is in the tented arch in the ridges that are in the center, which are not stable as in the case of the plain arch. The ridges that connect each other in the center join and push upward, giving the idea of a pitched tent.
  2. LOOP

    In loops, the ridges turn towards the back but do not twist. This backward turn distinguished by how the loop flows in the hand and how it does not flow on the card on which the impression is taken. The mark on the fingerprint card is similar to the reverse image we see of ourselves in the mirror.

    The two sub-groups that Henry recognized in this category are:

    • Ulnar Loop - These are the loops that flow when the descending slope of the loop is from the direction of the thumb toward the little finger of the hand.
    • Radial Loop - These loops flow to the radius bone of the hand

    Whorls have patterns having two or more deltas and there also exist a re-curve foregoing each delta. The four sub-groups of whorls are:

    • Spiral / Plain Whorl - In whorls, there is a full round complete route and therefore, these are round or curved in shape. The plain whorl is the simplest of whorl and the most ordinary.
    • Accidental Whorl - The work of the pattern is derived from two different types of patterns with at least two deltas.
    • Composite / Double Loop Whorl – In these, there are two individual loop formations and these are two completely divided and different sets of shoulders and deltas.
    • Variant / Accidental - The accidental pattern will contain two points of delta. One delta will be related to a re-curve and the other will be related to an upthrust.
    • Peacock's Eye / Central Pocket Whorl - In these whorls, one or more than one of the uncomplicated re-curves of the plain whorl re-curves twice.

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